The topic is what I always emphasize, 'skinimalism.' It's becoming a trend to use a few innovative products instead of applying too many different types of primary products. It's really fortunate. Our skin cannot absorb too many basic products.
As I mentioned earlier if you use too many basic products, the likelihood of encountering ingredients that do not suit your skin and cause contact allergies increases. That's why it's a good idea to practice 'skinimalism.' And that's why I sometimes don't make toner.
Toner is the first item I recommend reducing when practicing skinny minimalism. If you wipe your face with a cotton pad soaked in the toner in the morning and evening, your skin barrier will collapse. The stratum corneum is the skin barrier, and think about wiping away this stratum corneum with a cotton pad in the morning and evening.
The skin barrier must collapse. If this happens, no matter how good the product you apply, your skin won't become healthier. Some people ask if it's okay just to pour the toner into their hands and use it, but I don't think toner is a product worth doing that. Most of them are just made of water.
Therefore, after cleansing with a mild acidic cleanser, it is okay to move on to the serum, ampoule, or essence step. Sometimes there are people who wipe their faces with toner because makeup residue or impurities are not completely removed during the cleansing step. In this case, you should wash your face more thoroughly instead of wiping your face with toner. And there are people who say that it cleans up their skin texture.
However, the concept of 'skin texture' does not exist scientifically. When applying basic cosmetics, it is good to follow the rule of applying products with a lot of moisture first and products with a lot of oil last. It's better to apply functional products before the finishing cream. It's not good for functional ingredients to penetrate the skin through an oily cream. So, apply a moisturizing essence, ampoule, or serum, then apply functional products, and finally apply an oily product to protect your skin.